Eastern European Business and Economics Journal

Formal Networks among Tourism Enterprises: Peculiarities of the Italian Solution

 

 

Vincenzo Asero, Stefania Skonieczny

 

Asero V., Skonieczny S. 2017. Formal Networks among Tourism Enterprises: Peculiarities of the Italian Solution. Eastern European Business and Economics Journal 3(1): 48-66.

 

Full text

 

Abstract:

 

The globalization of markets creates the need for partnerships among enterprises. Business aggregations improve efficiency and competitiveness, mitigating SMEs’ size disadvantages. However, networks are not always naturally established and therefore sometimes need to be fostered. Among networks, formal networks subject to law are also perceived as safer and more reliable from third parties’ perspective. These factors find full expression in the Italian social and business scenario. This study examines tourism entrepreneurship, analysing the ‘business network contract’ or Contratto di Rete d’Imprese into this specific economic sector. This contract created in Italy and in continuous evolution is a model of formal aggregation used to bind entrepreneurs to a formal network.

 

Keywords:

Tourism network, Business network, Cooperation, Business network contracts, Tourism entrepreneurship, SMEs

 

JEL classification:

K12, L14, Z31

 

Language:

English

 

References:

Accetturo, A., Bassanetti, A., Bugamelli, M., Faiella, I., Finaldi Russo, P., Franco, D., Giacomelli, S., & Omiccioli M. (2013). Il sistema industriale italiano tra globalizzazione e crisi. Questioni di Economia e Finanza no.193, Banca d’Italia.

Arndt, O., & Sternberg, R. (2000). Do manufacturing firms profit from intraregional innovation linkages? An empirical based answer. European Planning Studies, 8(4), 465–485.

Bickerdyke, I. (1996). Australia: The evolving structure and strategies of business networks. In OECD (Ed.), Networks of enterprises and local development: Competing and co-operating in local productive systems, 203-216. Paris: OECD.

Bieger, T. (2004). SMEs and cooperation. In Keller, P., & Bieger, T.  (Eds.), The future of small and medium sized enterprises in tourism, 141–150. St. Gallen: AIEST.

Bramanti, A. (2013), Fare squadra per competere: L’esperienza lombarda nelle politiche di rete, EyesReg - Giornale di Scienze Regionali, 3(3), 51-57.

Braun, P. (2002). Networking tourism SMEs: E-commerce and e-marketing issues in regional Australia. Information Technology & Tourism, 5(1), 13-24.

Braun, P. (2005). Creating value to tourism products through tourism networks and clusters: Uncovering destination value chains. Paper presented at Global Tourism Growth: A Challenge for SMEs, OECD & Korea Conference. Retrieved February 10, 2017 from http://www.oecd.org/cfe/tourism/conferenceonglobaltourismgrowthachallengeforsmes.htm

Brunori, G., & Rossi, A. (2000). Collective action: Some insights from wine routes in Tuscany. Sociologia Ruralis, 40(4), 409-423.

Bruwer, J. (2003). South African wine routes: Some perspectives on the wine tourism industry’s structural dimensions and wine tourism product. Tourism Management, 24(4), 423–435.

Bucklin, L. P., & Sengupta, S. (1989). Organizing successful co-marketing alliances. Journal of Marketing, 57(2), 32-46.

Buhalis, D. (1999). Information technology for small and medium-sized tourism enterprises: Adaptation and benefits. Information Technology & Tourism, 2, 79-95.

Camera di Commercio di Firenze (2015). Il ruolo delle reti d’imprese in un’economia alle soglie della ripresa: base di partenza o punto di arrivo per un rilancio della crescita locale?. Nota di approfondimento, UO Statistica e Studi.

Chathoth, P. K., & Olsen, M. D. (2003). Strategic alliances: A hospitality industry perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22, 419-434.

Crouch, G. I., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1999). Tourism, competitiveness, and societal prosperity. Journal of Business Research, 44, 137-152.

Czernek, K. (2013). Determinants of cooperation in a tourist region. Annals of Tourism Research, 40(1), 83–104.

Centro Studi di Confindustria (CSC) & RetImpresa (2016). Reti d’Impresa. L’identikit di chi si aggrega: Competitivo e orientato ai mercati esteri. Retrieved February 10, 2017 from http://www.esteri.it/mae/resource/doc/2016/06/lidentikit_di_chi_si_aggrega_-_marzo_2016.pdf

Dollinger, M. J. (1990). The evolution of collective strategies in fragmented industries. Academy of Management Review, 15(2), 266-285.

Dredge, D. (2006). Policy networks and the local organisation of tourism. Tourism Management, 27(2), 269-280.

Edwards, B., Goodwin, M., Pemberton, S., & Woods, M. (2000). Partnership working in rural regeneration: Governance and empowerment? Bristol: The Policy Press and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Gibson, L., Lynch, P. A., & Morrison, A. (2005). The local destination tourism network: Development issues. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 2(2), 87–99.

Go, F., & Pine, R. (1995). Globalization strategy in the hotel industry. New York: Routledge.

Goldhar, J. D., & Lei, D. (1991). The shape of twenty-first century global manufacturing. Journal of Business Strategy, 12(2), 37-41.

Gulati, R. (1998). Alliances and networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19(4), 293–317.

Gulati, R. (1999). Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 20(5), 397–420.

Håkansson, H., & Snehota, I. (Eds.). (1995). Developing relationships in business networks. London: Routledge.

Hall, C.M. (2008). Tourism Planning. Policies, Processes and Relationship. Harlow, UK: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

Hall, C. M., Sharples, L., Cambourne, B., & Macionis, N. (Eds.). (2000). Wine tourism around the world: Development, management and markets. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Inkpen, A. C., & Tsang, E. W. K. (2005). Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 146-165.

Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A., & Vaidyanath, D. (2002). Alliance management as a source of competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 28(3), 413-446.

Istat (2015). Rapporto sulla competitività dei settori produttivi. Roma: Istituto nazionale di statistica.

Jamal, T. B., & Getz, D. (1995). Collaboration theory and community tourism planning. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(1), 186–204.

Jamal, T., & Jamrozy, U. (2006). Collaborative networks and partnerships for integrated destination management. In Buhalis, D., & Costa, C. (Eds.), Tourism management dynamics: Trends, management and tools, 164-172. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Koh, K. Y., & Hatten, T. S. (2002). The tourism entrepreneur. The overlooked player in tourism development studies. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 3(1), 21–48.

Littunen, H., & Tohmo, T. (2003). The high growth in new metal-based manufacturing and business service firms in Finland. Small Business Economics, 21, 187-200.

Magun, S. (1996). The development of strategic alliances in Canadian industries: A micro-analysis. Working paper No. 13, Industry Canada.

Merinero-Rodríguez, R., & Pulido-Fernández, J. I. (2016). Analysing relationships in tourism: A review. Tourism Management, 54, 122-135

Meyer-Cech, K. (2005). Regional cooperation in rural theme trails. In Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I., & Mitchell, M. (Eds.), Rural tourism and sustainable business, 137–148. Clevedon: Channel View.

Molinari, E., & Buhalis, D. (2003). Entrepreneurial Networks in Italian eTourism. In A. J. Frew, M. Hitz & P. O'Connor (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism, 96-104. New York: Springer.

Novelli, M., Schmitz, B., & Spencer, T. (2006). Networks, clusters and innovation in tourism: A UK experience. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1141-1152.

Ohmae, K. (1989). The global logic of strategic alliances. Harvard Business Review, 67(2), 143-154.

Pavlovich, K. (2003). The evolution and transformation of a tourism destination network: The Waitomo Caves, New Zealand. Tourism Management, 24(2), 203-216.

Porter M. (1998), Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, 76(6), 77-90.

Reid, L. J., Smith, S. L. J., & McCloskey, R. (2008). The effectiveness of regional marketing alliances: A case study of the Atlantic Canada Tourism Partnership 2000–2006. Tourism Management, 29(3), 581–593.

Russell, R., & Faulkner, B. (1999). Movers and shakers: chaos makers in tourism development. Tourism Management, 20(4), 411-423.

Russell, R., & Faulkner, B. (2004). Entrepreneurship, chaos and the tourism area lifecycle. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 556–579.

Shaw, G. (2004). Entrepreneurial cultures and small business enterprises in tourism. In Lew, A. A., Hall, C. M., & Williams, A. M. (Eds.), A companion to tourism, 122-134. Malden: Blackwell.

Sheehan, L. R., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2005). Destination stakeholders. Exploring identity and salience. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3), 711–734.

Smith, S. L. J. (2006). How big, How many? Enterprise size distributions in tourism and other industries. Journal of Travel Research, 45(1), 53-58.

Stokes R. (2004). Relationships and networks for shaping events tourism: An Australian study, Event Management, 10(2/3), 145-158.

Street, C. T., & Cameron, A. (2007). External relationships and the small business: A review of small business alliance and network research. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(2), 239-266.

Strobl, A., & Peters, M. (2013). Entrepreneurial reputation in destination networks. Annals of Tourism Research, 40, 59–82.

Tayler, P., & McRae-Williams, P. (2005). Internal versus external economies of scale. Working Paper, Centre for Regional Innovation & Competitiveness.

Telfer, D. J. (2000). Tastes of Niagara: Building strategic alliances between tourism and agriculture. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 1, 71–88.

Telfer, D. J. (2001). Strategic alliances along the Niagara Wine Route. Tourism Management, 22(1), 21–30.

Thorelli, H. B. (1986). Networks: Between markets and hierarchies. Strategic Management Journal, 7(1), 37-51.

Tinsley, R., & Lynch, P. (2001). Small tourism business networks and destination development. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20(4), 367-378.

Tremblay, P. (1998). The economic organization of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(4), 837–859.

Tripodi, E. M. (2012). Le recenti novità in materia di produzione, vendita e tutela dei consumatori. Disciplina del commercio e dei servizi, 11(3), 15-56.

Vasilska, M., Kereziev, I., & Ivanova, Y. (2014). Strategic networking behaviour of SMEs: Practical considerations from Bulgaria. In Todorov, K., & Smallbone, D. (Eds.), Strategic management in small and medium enterprises, 372-397. Hershey: IGI Global.

Vellas, F., & Becherel, L. (1999). The international marketing of travel and tourism: A strategic approach. London: Macmillan.

Vernon, J., Essex, S., Pinder, D., & Curry, K. (2005). Collaborative policymaking: Local sustainable projects. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(2), 325–345.

Ziakas, V., & Costa, C. A. (2010). Explicating inter-organizational linkages of a host community's events network. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1(2), 132-147.

Waddock, S. A. (1989). Understanding social partnerships: An evolutionary model of partnership organizations. Administration and Society, 21(1), 78–100.

Wang, Y., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2007). Collaborative destination marketing: A case study of Elkhart county, Indiana. Tourism Management, 28(3), 863–875.

Wood, D. J., & Gray, B. (1991). Toward a comprehensive theory of collaboration. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 27(2), 139–162.

Wooldridge, J. (2002), Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.